RevolutionSliderError:SliderwithaliasHomeBannernotfound.Maybeyoumean:'spring-2018'or'fall-2017'or'spring-2017'or'fall-2015'or'summer-2017'or'spring-2016'jQuery(document).ready(function(){jQuery(".rev_slider").show();});Editor’sNoteThisnarrativebyNathanielRichisaworkofhistory,addressingthe10-yearperiodfrom1979to1989:thedecisivedecadewhenhumankindfirstcametoabroadunderstandingofthecausesanddangersofclimatechange.Complementingthetextisaseriesofaerialphotographsandvideos,allshotoverthepastyearbyGeorgeSteinmetz.WithsupportfromthePulitzerCenter,thistwo-partarticleisbasedon18monthsofreportingandwelloverahundredinterviews.IttrackstheeffortsofasmallgroupofAmericanscientists,activistspoliticianstoraisethealarmandstaveoffcatastrophe.Itwillcomeasarevelationtomanyreaders—anagonizingrevelation—tounderstandhowthoroughlytheygraspedtheproblemandhowclosetheycametosolvingit.JakeSilversteinTheworldhaswarmedmorethanonedegreeCelsiussincetheIndustrialRevolution.TheParisclimateagreement—thenonbinding,unenforceableandalreadyunheededtreatysignedonEarthDayin2016—hopedtorestrictwarmingtotwodegrees.Theoddsofsucceeding,accordingtoarecentstudybasedoncurrentemissionstrends,areonein20.Ifbysomemiracleweareabletolimitwarmingtotwodegrees,wewillonlyhavetonegotiatetheextinctionoftheworld’stropicalreefs,sea-levelriseofseveralmetersandtheabandonmentofthePersianGulf.TheclimatescientistJamesHansenhascalledtwo-degreewarming“aprescriptionforlong-termdisaster.”Long-termdisasterisnowthebest-casescenario.Three-degreewarmingisaprescriptionforshort-termdisaster:forestsintheArcticandthelossofmostcoastalcities.RobertWatson,aformerdirectoroftheUnitedNationsIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange,hasarguedthatthree-degreewarmingistherealisticminimum.Fourdegrees:Europeinpermanentdrought;vastareasofChina,IndiaandBangladeshclaimedbydesert;Polynesiaswallowedbythesea;theColoradoRiverthinnedtoatrickle;theAmericanSouthwestlargelyuninhabitable.Theprospectofafive-degreewarminghaspromptedsomeoftheworld’sleadingclimatescientiststowarnoftheendofhumancivilization.PartOne1979–1982ThefirstsuggestiontoRafePomerancethathumankindwasdestroyingtheconditionsnecessaryforitsownsurvivalcameonPage66ofthegovernmentpublicationEPA-600/7-78-019.Itwasatechnicalreportaboutcoal,boundinacoal-blackcoverwithbeigelettering—oneofmanysuchreportsthatlayinunevenpilesaroundPomerance’swindowlessofficeonthefirstflooroftheCapitolHilltownhousethat,inthelate1970s,servedastheWashingtonheadquartersofFriendsoftheEarth.Inthefinalparagraphofachapteronenvironmentalregulation,thecoalreport’sauthorsnotedthatthecontinueduseoffossilfuelsmight,withintwoorthreedecades,bringabout“significantanddamaging”changestotheglobalatmosphere.Pomerancepaused,startled,overtheorphanedparagraph.Itseemedtohavecomeoutofnowhere.Herereadit.Itmadenosensetohim.Pomerancewasnotascientist;hegraduatedfromCornell11yearsearlierwithadegreeinhistory.Hehadthetweedyappearanceofanundernourisheddoctoralstudentemergingatdawnfromthestacks.Heworehorn-rimmedglassesandathickishmustachethatwilteddisapprovinglyoverthecornersofhismouth,thoughhisdefiningcharacteristicwashisgratuitousheight,6feet4inches,whichseemedtoembarrasshim;hestoopedovertoaccommodatehisinterlocutors.Hehadanactivefacepronetobreakingoutinwide,evenmaniacalgrins,butincomposure,aswhenhereadthecoalpamphlet,itprojectedconcern.Hestruggledwithtechnicalreports.Heproceededasahistorianmight:cautiously,scrutinizingthesourcematerial,readingbetweenthelines.Whenthatfailed,hemadephonecalls,oftentotheauthorsofthereports,whotendedtobesurprisedtohearfromhim.Scientists,hehadfound,werenotinthehabitoffieldingquestionsfrompoliticallobbyists.Theywerenotinthehabitofthinkingaboutpolitics..vc_custom_1539166463038{margin-top:0px!important;border-top-width:0px!important;padding-top:0px!important;}.vc_custom_1537853680676{background-color:#000000!important;}.vc_custom_1537854322745{background-image:url(https://santaclaramaga.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/5mag-climate-archive-ss-slide-9PAW-superJumbo-v3.png?id=4436)!important;}.vc_custom_1537812571977{margin-top:0px!important;border-top-width:0px!important;padding-top:0px!important;}.vc_custom_1537854928421{padding-top:220px!important;padding-bottom:220px!important;}

Revolution Slider Error: Slider with alias HomeBanner not found.
Maybe you mean: 'spring-2018' or 'fall-2017' or 'spring-2017' or 'fall-2015' or 'summer-2017' or 'spring-2016'

Editor’s Note
This narrative by Nathaniel Rich is a work of history, addressing the 10-year period from 1979 to 1989: the decisive decade when humankind first came to a broad understanding of the causes and dangers of climate change. Complementing the text is a series of aerial photographs and videos, all shot over the past year by George Steinmetz. With support from the Pulitzer Center, this two-part article is based on 18 months of reporting and well over a hundred interviews. It tracks the efforts of a small group of American scientists, activists politicians to raise the alarm and stave off catastrophe. It will come as a revelation to many readers — an agonizing revelation — to understand how thoroughly they grasped the problem and how close they came to solving it. Jake Silverstein

The world has warmed more than one degree Celsius since the Industrial Revolution. The Paris climate agreement — the nonbinding, unenforceable and already unheeded treaty signed on Earth Day in 2016 — hoped to restrict warming to two degrees. The odds of succeeding, according to a recent study based on current emissions trends, are one in 20. If by some miracle we are able to limit warming to two degrees, we will only have to negotiate the extinction of the world’s tropical reefs, sea-level rise of several meters and the abandonment of the Persian Gulf. The climate scientist James Hansen has called two-degree warming “a prescription for long-term disaster.” Long-term disaster is now the best-case scenario. Three-degree warming is a prescription for short-term disaster: forests in the Arctic and the loss of most coastal cities. Robert Watson, a former director of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, has argued that three-degree warming is the realistic minimum. Four degrees: Europe in permanent drought; vast areas of China, India and Bangladesh claimed by desert; Polynesia swallowed by the sea; the Colorado River thinned to a trickle; the American Southwest largely uninhabitable. The prospect of a five-degree warming has prompted some of the world’s leading climate scientists to warn of the end of human civilization.

Part One
1979–1982

The first suggestion to Rafe Pomerance that humankind was destroying the conditions necessary for its own survival came on Page 66 of the government publication EPA-600/7-78-019. It was a technical report about coal, bound in a coal-black cover with beige lettering — one of many such reports that lay in uneven piles around Pomerance’s windowless office on the first floor of the Capitol Hill townhouse that, in the late 1970s, served as the Washington headquarters of Friends of the Earth. In the final paragraph of a chapter on environmental regulation, the coal report’s authors noted that the continued use of fossil fuels might, within two or three decades, bring about “significant and damaging” changes to the global atmosphere.

Pomerance paused, startled, over the orphaned paragraph. It seemed to have come out of nowhere. He reread it. It made no sense to him. Pomerance was not a scientist; he graduated from Cornell 11 years earlier with a degree in history. He had the tweedy appearance of an undernourished doctoral student emerging at dawn from the stacks. He wore horn-rimmed glasses and a thickish mustache that wilted disapprovingly over the corners of his mouth, though his defining characteristic was his gratuitous height, 6 feet 4 inches, which seemed to embarrass him; he stooped over to accommodate his interlocutors. He had an active face prone to breaking out in wide, even maniacal grins, but in composure, as when he read the coal pamphlet, it projected concern. He struggled with technical reports. He proceeded as a historian might: cautiously, scrutinizing the source material, reading between the lines. When that failed, he made phone calls, often to the authors of the reports, who tended to be surprised to hear from him. Scientists, he had found, were not in the habit of fielding questions from political lobbyists. They were not in the habit of thinking about politics.

Moving Up
Moving Up

Setting the tone: Bronco to lead Spanish and English language channels in CA’s second biggest city.

Lucky No. 27
Lucky No. 27

SCU junior Jalen Williams ’23 is the 27th NBA Draft pick in program history—and the first since Steve Nash ’96.

Crack the Code
Crack the Code

SCU math whizzes used their time stuck inside to find a solution to a challenging math problem.

Wild Ideas
Wild Ideas

Get comfortable. One thinker wants to measure if all the activities we’re doing at work actually lead us to create more value.

Drafted
Drafted

You can find Julian Bravo ’22 on the professional pitch for the Portland Timbers.

Legend
Legend

Take a peek into coach Buck Shaw‘s life in Kevin Carroll’s Buck Shaw: The Life and Sportsmanship of the Legendary Football Coach.

Leading Role
Leading Role

After a successful seven-season stint coaching women’s soccer at Stanford, Margueritte Aozasa ’12 will coach the UCLA Bruins.